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Defence reactions of Norway spruce against bark beetles and the associated fungus Ceratocystis polonica in secondary pure and mixed species stands.
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Volume Article Contents Abstract. Materials and Methods. Supporting Information. Sources of Funding.
Conflict of Interest. Literature Cited. Article Navigation. Redmond colostate. Oxford Academic. Thomas Seth Davis. In this technique, each symbol generator contains two display monitoring channels.
One channel, the internal, samples the output from its own symbol generator to the display unit and computes, for example, what roll attitude should produce that indication.
Any difference has probably been introduced by faulty processing, and triggers a warning on the relevant display.
The external monitoring channel carries out the same check on the symbol generator on the other side of the flight deck: the Captain's symbol generator checks the First Officer's, the First Officer's checks the Captain's.
Whichever symbol generator detects a fault, puts up a warning on its own display. The external monitoring channel also checks sensor inputs to the symbol generator for reasonableness.
A spurious input, such as a radio height greater than the radio altimeter's maximum, results in a warning.
At various stages of a flight, a pilot needs different combinations of data. Ideally, the avionics only show the data in use—but an electromechanical instrument must be in view all the time.
Under normal conditions, an EFIS might not display some indications, e. Only when some parameter exceeds its limits does the system display the reading.
In the case of an input failure, an electromechanical instrument adds yet another indicator—typically, a bar drops across the erroneous data.
EFIS, on the other hand, removes invalid data from the display and substitutes an appropriate warning.
A de-clutter mode activates automatically when circumstances require the pilot's attention for a specific item. For example, if the aircraft pitches up or down beyond a specified limit—usually 30 to 60 degrees—the attitude indicator de-clutters other items from sight until the pilot brings the pitch to an acceptable level.
This helps the pilot focus on the most important tasks. Traditional instruments have long used color, but lack the ability to change a color to indicate some change in condition.
The electronic display technology of EFIS has no such restriction and uses color widely. For example, as an aircraft approaches the glide slope, a blue caption can indicate glide slope is armed, and capture might change the color to green.
Typical EFIS systems color code the navigation needles to reflect the type of navigation. Magenta needles indicate GPS navigation. EFIS provides versatility by avoiding some physical limitations of traditional instruments.
A pilot can switch the same display that shows a course deviation indicator to show the planned track provided by an area navigation or flight management system.
Pilots can choose to superimpose the weather radar picture on the displayed route. The flexibility afforded by software modifications minimises the costs of responding to new aircraft regulations and equipment.
Software updates can update an EFIS system to extend its capabilities. Updates introduced in the s included the ground proximity warning system and traffic collision avoidance system.
A degree of redundancy is available even with the simple two-screen EFIS installation. Should the PFD fail, transfer switching repositions its vital information to the screen normally occupied by the navigation display.
Recent advances in computing power and reductions in the cost of liquid-crystal displays and navigational sensors such as GPS and attitude and heading reference system have brought EFIS to general aviation aircraft.
The low cost is possible because of steep drops in the price of sensors and displays, and equipment for experimental aircraft doesn't require expensive Federal Aviation Administration certification.
This latter point restricts their use to experimental aircraft and certain other aircraft categories, depending on local regulations.
Uncertified EFIS systems are also found in Light-sport aircraft , including factory built, microlight, and ultralight aircraft. These systems can be fitted to certified aircraft in some cases as secondary or backup systems depending on local aviation rules.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Flight instruments. Altimeter Airspeed indicator Machmeter Variometer. Attitude indicator Heading indicator Horizontal situation indicator Turn and slip indicator Turn coordinator Turn indicator.
Jet engines and aircraft gas turbines. Propeller governor Propeller speed reduction unit. Jet fuel. Aircraft components and systems.
Ejection seat Escape crew capsule. Aircraft lavatory Auxiliary power unit Bleed air system Deicing boot Emergency oxygen system Flight recorder Entertainment system Environmental control system Hydraulic system Ice protection system Landing lights Navigation light Passenger service unit Ram air turbine Weeping wing.
Categories : Avionics Aircraft instruments Applications of control engineering Display technology Glass cockpit.